Advancement in technologies is leading to a bright future. A technology that leaves a huge impact on medical science is Nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is an innovative creation of scientists that rely on a size of 1-100 nm only which is a million times smaller than an ant. Its concept was credited to famous physicist Richard Feynman in 1959.
In medical science, nanobots are used so that a drug can be focused on the precise and particular position that makes the drug more effective and because that drug will only be used at the desired location therefore drug is not going to affect and other body parts. Hence reduces the unwanted possibilities of side effect. It can be visualized as an RBC which can’t be seen by our naked eyes has a size of 7000-8000 nm and a DNA thread which is only 2.5 nm. So now you can imagine how small a nanobot is, almost comparable to an atom.
Now let’s understand the biology behind the nanobots.
Their small size is responsible for their easy flow in the bloodstream as blood is the only reachable thing in the human body. So they carry drugs within them. They are preferred to have chemo-tactic sensors so that they are tracked and achieve accuracy. The presence of glucose and oxygen in the nearby environment becomes their source of fuel.
Then they reach their location to act upon, they have microchips that have electrical signals which identify the diseased area. Throughout their entire journey, they look for disease and notifies. They usually tell the blood sugar level. As their work ends they can be either removed or recovered by centrifuge apheresis.
Its structure is hollow inside to carry some drug in it. These are generally formed of carbon being of inert nature and good strength. The presence of some microwaves or ultrasonic signals breaks chemical bonds without the rupturing of the wall, heat the cancerous cells which is enough heat to destroy it.
Look at some nanobots
A microbivore is used to digest the microbes present inside, to increase the immune efficiency. These have 80 times great impact than the WBC.
A chromallocyte is used to replace the entire chromosomes in cells, it completely examines the cell’s content and then repairs accordingly.
A respirocyte, an artificial oxygen carrier almost similar to red blood cell (RBC) but spherical. It carries 286 times more oxygen than RBC per unit volume.
A clottocyte is used to heal the red blood cell, it has the unique ability to heal our blood platelets. They get activated and then become tacky and lump together on the site to form tapon that aid the wound on platelets and stops internal bleeding.
It generally has fewer side effects as it is site-specific. Its size makes it reachable to the places where medical needs operation. Hence, it also reduces the cost which is higher by the operation as after operation there is much and more maintenance cost. These can easily act upon the plague, blockage. Nowadays many technologies are coming related to it such as dentifrices(mouthwash), anesthesia, kidney related.
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